Norms & Behavioral Change (NoBeC) Talks
The NoBeC (Norms and Behavioral Change) Talks showcase interdisciplinary early career and senior researchers working on norms and behavioral change around the world. We also aim to give PhD students and Post-Docs exposure by showing short pre-recorded 5 min videos about their research before each of our main talks.
Talks are open to everyone and take place on Thursdays every 2-3 weeks at 1:00 PM ET.
Goldstone Forum 2021: Robert Cialdini
Robert Cialdini presented at the 20th Annual Goldstone Forum at the Penn Philosophy, Politics and Economics Program.
Social Norms-Based Messaging: A (Nonpolluting) Engine for Environmental Action
A talk from Robert Cialdini, New York Times Best-Selling Author of Influence and Pre-Suasion
Social norms are remarkably powerful in directing human action. Studies have shown that communications that use social norms-based appeals for pro-environmental behavior are superior to those that use traditional appeals, but this motivating power is often used incorrectly.
Cristina Bicchieri presented at the World Bank Poverty and Equity Seminar
Our Founding Director, Professor Cristina Bicchieri, on Thursday April 22nd 2021 delivered a seminar at the World Bank Poverty and Equity seminar series about how and why systematic measures of social norms matters, how norm nudging and social norm interventions in general should be grounded in an understanding of causation and on preliminary measures of beliefs and social expectations.
NoBeC (Norms & Behavioral Change) Conference 2022
Our Annual in-person NoBeC Conference [Norms and Behavioral Change] in all set to be back in October 2022!
After a hiatus due to the COVID-19 pandemic in which we pivoted to our biweekly virtual NoBeC Talks, the Penn Center for Social Norms and Behavioral Dynamics is thrilled to host its in-person NoBeC Conference during Fall 2022! The 2022 Conference will be a two-day, in-person event held on the University of Pennsylvania campus.
As in previous versions, the NoBeC (Norms and Behavioral Change) Conference aims to bring together researchers studying the relationships between social norms and behavioral change. This includes experimental, empirical, and theoretical research investigating the formation, change, and abandonment of norms and their role in affecting and being affected by individual and collective behavior. We invite researchers and practitioners working at the intersection of social norms and behavioral change and its applications in the fields of economics, psychology, political science, and public health as well as other corresponding disciplines.
More information and abstract submission form: www.nobecconference.com
Deadline for abstract submission: 15th July 2022
The RISE Research Award 2020
Election to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina
Professor Cristina Bicchieri, Founding Director, Center for Social Norms and Behavioral Dynamics was recently elected to both the American American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, in honor of her efforts to help solve some of the world’s most urgent challenges. Bicchieri’s work also examines the nature and evolution of social norms, how to measure them, and what strategies are necessary to foster social change.
The RISE (Researching Injustice and Social Equality) Award
The RISE (Researching Injustice and Social Equality) Award seeks to cultivate psychological science research in fields related to socially and economically under-represented populations, and recognize outstanding student researchers from diverse racial, ethnic, geographic and cultural backgrounds, as well as other underrepresented groups in psychological science. Our research, “The Critical Role of Trendsetters in Inspiring Behavior Change at Scale: Evidence from India’s Sanitation Campaign” has been selected as a “Winner” of the 2020 RISE Research Award. It received high ratings by our volunteer reviewers, in addition to reflecting the goals of the RISE Award and contributing something novel to our respective research area.
Podcast, Interviews and Press
Cristina Bicchieri featured in Knowable Magazine article
Cristina Bicchieri, Director of the Center for Social Norms and Behavioral Dynamics at Penn was recently featured in this Knowable Magazine article, The secrets of cooperation .
In this article, Bob Holmes investigates the science of cooperation by citing some of the most prominent behavioral scientists in the field. Among them is our very own Cristina Bicchieri, who touches on the differences of telling someone what to do versus directing them via telling them what other people are doing. Learn more by reading the full article! Online Article / March 29, 2023
Work of LENNS team covered in Research Features
In some regions of India, toilet usage is lower than expected, leading to open defecation. Professor Cristina Bicchieri and her research team at the University of Pennsylvania have established the Longitudinal Evaluation of Norms and Networks Study (LENNS), with the aim of improving sanitation and toilet usage across India and informing intervention strategies globally. The work of the LENNS team was recently covered in Research Features, a UK-based magazine. The outcome of LENNS research on social norms and networks is an evidence-based behavioural change intervention to promote toilet usage. Initial feedback has been positive, but further research and testing will be required to assess its longitudinal impact.
Online Article / October 26, 2021
Eugen Dimant writes in Psychology Today
Eugen Dimant, a Center member and an Associate Professor of Practice in Behavioral & Decision Sciences at the University of Pennsylvania, co-authored this article in Psychology Today, Why People Share Conspiracy Theories Even When They Know They Are Untrue. The story discusses findings from Dimant’s recent research identifying social motives as an important driver of the decision to share conspiracy theories. Dimant and his co-authors have found that individuals may be choosing to share posts that they know to be untrue in anticipation of greater attention and engagement from viewers. Dimant writes, “As a result, policymakers may be able to curb the spread of misinformation by simply shifting incentives for social engagement by shutting down bots that “like” and retweet misinformation and encouraging official institutions to support true news.”
Online Article / September 24, 2021
Cristina Bicchieri featured in Time Magazine article
Cristina Bicchieri, Director of the Center for Social Norms and Behavioral Dynamics at Penn was recently featured in this Time Magazine article, Why Everyone Is So Rude Right Now.
This article by Belinda Luscombe shares perspectives from psychologists and highlights how the long separation due to the COVID-19 pandemic has made social interactions more fraught. “Nobody expected what happened. We didn’t have time to prepare psychologically,” says Bicchieri. Just as it seemed like the danger had passed, other limitations arrived; staff shortages, product shortages, longer delivery times. “People think, ‘O.K, now we can go shopping and go out,’ and they find that life is not back to normal,” Bicchieri adds. “There is an enormous amount of frustration.”
Online Article / October 15, 2021
Fraudulent data raise questions about superstar honesty researcher
In this recent Science magazine interview, Eugen Dimant, Associate Professor of Practice and a Center member, weighs in on the recent concerns of academic fraud committed by renowned Duke researcher and professor, Dan Ariely. Dan Ariely, James B. Duke professor of psychology and behavioral economics, has had at least two of his works come under scrutiny in recent weeks due to ambiguous or potentially fraudulent data. His research on honesty, cheating, and irrationality is “extremely clever and extremely intuitive,” says behavioral scientist Eugen Dimant of the University of Pennsylvania—and it has had a huge impact on both the field and government policies.
Online Interview / August 24, 2021
Cristina Bicchieri's Interview @ the Inaugural Event of the Center for Behavioral Institutional Design
NYU Abu Dhabi, on June 17, 2021, announced to the local community the establishment of their Center for Behavioral Institutional Design. The aim of the inaugural event was to provide information about the Center’s purpose and capabilities, as well as to continue a discussion about how the new center can best serve the local community. Cristina Bicchieri, our Center Director, was interviewed for this inaugural event, and focused on the importance of using insights from behavioral social science to inform public policy as well as, shared insights on what C-BID can do for the UAE community. We are happy to share a zoom recording of this web event. Please watch the full event here.
Online Lecture / June 17, 2021
Peritia Lecture Series: Third Party Punishment And Compensation In Trust Games
In this seventh talk of the PERITIA Trust Lecture Series, “[Un]Truths: Trust in an Age of Disinformation”, Philosopher Cristina Bicchieri discusses how the intentionality of investors or trustees’ actions affects third party compensation and punishment interventions after a trust game.
Online Lecture / June 15, 2021
Cristina Bicchieri's Podcast on Wharton Business Daily
Cristina Bicchieri, Penn Professor of Social Thought and Comparative Ethics, joins Wharton Business Daily host Dan Loney to discuss the new norms of mask wearing on this episode of SiriusXM radio show.
Online Podcast / June 17, 2021
Episode 45: Influencing Social Norms ft. Cristina Bicchieri (Questioning Behavior)
In this episode of the Questioning Behaviour Podcast, Sarah Bowen and Merle van dan Akker talk to behavioural science legend Cristina Bicchieri about her work in behavioural science, applying behavioural science to changing behaviors through the application of social norms, all over the world! In this lecture, the podcast hosts discuss social norms, behavioural change, interwoven societies, the power of storytelling and the massive impact social media can have.
Online Podcast / May 31, 2021
Black Boxes and Trendsetters: Social Norm Change Tips from Cristina
In this recent blog interview, Cristina Bicchieri, Director of the Center for Social Norms and Behavioral Dynamics shares insightful tips for anti-corruption practitioners that are aiming to change social norms. Dhaval Kothari, the Senior Associate at the Corruption, Justice and Legitimacy Program, spoke to Cristina Bicchieri to address the importance and possible negative consequences of not integrating social norms correctly into programming.
Online Blog / May 18, 2021
Cristina Bicchieri featured in the New York Times Magazine
Cristina Bicchieri, Director of the Center for Social Norms and Behavioral Dynamics at Penn discusses her research on norms & COVID-19 in this New York Times Magazine article. “To create a new norm,” Bicchieri says, “you need to build this sense that other people are following the rules.” Bicchieri adds, whether respondents trusted science also had a major effect on their willingness to follow health guidance, regardless of what they believed about their peers.
Online Article / December 10, 2020
Longitudinal Evaluation of Norms and Networks (LENNS) study in the field
Our Longitudinal Evaluation of Norms and Networks (LENNS) study is seeking to shift norms to increase toilet usage in peri urban communities in India. Learn more about how our evidence based, theory-driven behavior change strategy is being implemented through this video.
The link between perceptions of autonomy and global views of income inequality
Research from the Center for Social Norms & Behavioral Dynamics finds that people who feel independent think that most others are, too. They also underestimate the level of poverty in the United States. “There has been a lot of research done on freedom and economic inequality, but I thought it was important to analyze the perceptions that people have about their own freedom and autonomy,” says Cristina Bicchieri, the S. J. Patterson Harvie Professor of Social Thought and Comparative Ethics, who studies judgement, decision-making, and social norms. In collaboration with Penn Integrates Knowledge Professor Barbara Mellers, Abraham Aldama, a postdoctoral researcher in Penn’s Center for Social Norms & Behavioral Dynamics, and colleagues from the University of Fribourg and the University of Oregon, Bicchieri created a two-part survey. “When people think they are in control, they also tend to think that economic results depend on their own actions rather than luck or someone else’s actions,” Aldama adds. “This then tends to make people believe that whatever inequality exists is fair. In other words, if you’re poor it’s because you didn’t put in enough effort.” Read the full story by clicking the button below.
Online Article / January 15, 2020
New Social Norms During the Pandemic
The latest story from OMNIA, the Penn Arts and Sciences magazine, highlights Cristina Bicchieri and Enrique Fatas’ research on how new social norms have emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly norms like social distancing and mask-wearing. “We decided to do a study in nine different countries, which included Mexico, Colombia, China, South Korea, Italy, Spain, Germany, the U.K., and the U.S.,” says Bicchieri, Sascha Jane Patterson Harvie Professor of Social Thought and Comparative Ethics. Bicchieri and Fatas found that for people to modify behavior, it’s first necessary to change their expectations about how others that matter to them act and think. “Public information and the media may change people’s expectations about what others do and what others believe is appropriate to do,” Bicchieri says. But new expectations alone aren’t enough; they need to cause people to want to change their behavior. Read the full story here.
Online Article / October 21, 2020
Inspire Series Interview: How trendsetters and soap operas can help us change child feeding behaviors?
What do soap operas have to do with child feeding behaviors? The latest post in the #Inspire4SBC series, from AliveandThrive, takes an innovative look at improving nutrition by changing social norms, using creative strategies like identifying community trendsetters and weaving messages into the plot of soap operas! Since its inception more than a decade ago, Alive & Thrive has aimed to motivate changes in maternal, infant and young child nutrition (MIYCN) social norms and behaviors. Social norms are the implicit or explicit rules that govern behaviors within a group. Especially now, there is increased focus on new and interesting ideas to drive social and behavior change but many have been underutilized to address nutrition challenges. Inspire seeks to bridge that gap. A variety of factors influence what mothers and caregivers choose to feed their infant children – which partly explains why changing complementary feeding behaviors is so challenging. In this interview, Bicchieri discusses how understanding how social norms shape behaviors can help us figure out how to change those behaviors and how Trendsetters and soap operas can help change social norms that influence child feeding behaviors. Curious? Read the full interview here.
Interview / July 7, 2020
Harvard Decision Science Lab - Behavioral Science Talk Series
The Harvard Decision Science Laboratory studies how people make judgments and decisions (building on insights from economics, psychology, and neuroscience) and identifies strategies that help people, organizations, and society improve decision making approaches and structures. Their latest Behavioral Science talk series recently featured a virtual talk, Norms, Trust and Compliance with Public Health Measures, by Professor Cristina Bicchieri from the University of Pennsylvania. In this talk, she presented for the first time new evidence on behavior during COVID-19 from 9 countries: Italy, Spain, Germany, England, China, S. Korea, Mexico, Colombia, and the US.
Online Video / September 9, 2020
Busara and IBEN Webinar Series
In this joint Busara and IBEN Webinar Series, speakers discuss psychological factors affecting the success of measures to decrease the spread of Covid-19. The use of descriptive social norms is probably one of the most overused as well as often misused psychological levers that people use without understanding implications on consequences. In this third episode of the Webinar Series, Cristina Bicchieri, Sascha Jane Patterson Harvie Professor of Social Thought and Comparative Ethics discusses the importance of understanding social norms during the current COVID Pandemic and its significance, beyond.
Online Video / June 18, 2020
Every spring and fall, Penn Arts and Sciences faculty take a minute out by the Ben Franklin statue in front of College Hall to share their perspectives on topics ranging from human history and the knowable universe to fractions and fly-fishing. This semester, 60-Second Lectures go digital as we seek to understand this difficult and unique moment in time. A wide variety of scholars and experts will shed light on the pandemic, including the science; the complex social, cultural, historical, and economic issues; and the response here on campus. Cristina Bicchieri, Sascha Jane Patterson Harvie Professor of Social Thought and Comparative Ethics discusses the concept of “Norm-Nudging” in this video.
Online Video / April 8, 2020
The New York Times Article
For his opinion piece, Thomas B. Edsall, spoke by phone with Cristina Bicchieri, a professor of philosophy and psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. In this opinion piece in the New York Times, Bicchieri shares her thoughts on Trump & his re-election campaign. One of Trump’s strengths, Bicchieri said, grows out of the fact that “people hate ambiguity,” and if there is one thing Trump is not, it’s ambiguous. Trump’s ability to convey conviction, even when saying things that are demonstrably false, is critically important in persuading supporters to believe and vote for him. “He is always sure of what he says, when he sends a message, he is always sure,” Bicchieri noted. He may change his mind and say “things are black one day and they are white” the next day, but on both days “he will have the same strength of conviction.” In an email, Bicchieri cited research that shows “political conservatism being negatively correlated with tolerance to uncertainty.” This supports, she said, “the general notion that conservative voters would enjoy Trump’s simple and ‘certain’ declarations about the world.”
Online Article / May 13, 2020
Delhi Post Article
This article in Delhi Post by Sania Ashraf – an epidemiologist at the University of Pennsylvania and a Research Specialist at the Center for Social Norms and Behavioral Dynamics – talks about several sanitation-related aspects that need attention when directing COVID-19 preventive measures in the coming weeks and months. “There are no guidelines based on faecal–oral transmission of COVID-19 virus, and rightfully so given the lack of evidence to support this transmission pathway. However, given the increased risk of open defecation in public spaces in India, further research should focus on understanding this risk”, says Sania Ashraf. Her research uses community health workers to improve health and WASH conditions in India. She further notes, “any robust inclusive COVID-19 control strategy in urban India and low-income communities should include enhanced sanitation facility management and messages to promote safe usage.”
Online Article / April 27, 2020
Behavioral Grooves Podcast
This podcast focuses on applying behavioral science insights to work and life where the hosts talk with interesting guests to explore “why we do what we do!”. In this podcast the hosts talk to businesses and nonprofit leaders about how they apply behavioral science to work to make their businesses more effective. The podcast also shares insights from behavioral science researchers from a wide variety of cross-disciplinary fields. This episode features Dr. Cristina Bicchieri, the faculty director of the Master of Behavioral and Decision Science Program at UPenn. Cristina’s observations are based on a lifetime of excellent research and writing and this podcast provides insights on social norms and reference networks. The discussion with Cristina also offers useful tips for all of the corporate and customer-focused messaging.
Podcast / April 11, 2020
Delhi Post Article
This article in Delhi Post by Sania Ashraf – an epidemiologist at the University of Pennsylvania and a Research Specialist at the Center for Social Norms and Behavioral Dynamics – talks about the role of Frontline health workers, Anganwadi and sanitation workers and how with innovative tools and approaches, they can amplify the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic in India. Sania’s research uses community health workers to improve health and WASH conditions in India. “As the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak spreads through the country, fears about morbidity and mortality will consequently escalate in communities”, says Sania Ashraf. She further notes, “as India considers its COVID-19 containment plan, tapping into the massive pool of on-the-ground healthcare, workers will allow timely dissemination of useful messages.”
Online Article / April 01, 2020
Behavioral Grooves Podcast
The Behavioral Grooves podcast shares insights from behavioral science researchers from a wide variety of cross-disciplinary fields and in this episode the hosts speak with Eugent Dimant, an Associate Professor of Practice in Behavioral and Decision Sciences, which is part of the new Center for Social Norms and Behavioral Dynamics under Cristina Bicchieri, Ph.D.’s leadership at the University of Pennsylvania. This podcast focuses on how social norms drive individual behaviors in different ways and how research on coronavirus-related behaviors is being completed at record speeds – but not necessarily all in good ways. Eugen Dimant recommends slowing down, working across disciplines, and being clear on research objectives to insure test methods and data collection conform to the highest standards and deliver the most meaningful results.
Podcast / March 31, 2020
“Social distancing is not just for the sick, but for each and every person, including you and even your family,” Modi said in a nationwide address last week. In this CNN article, Sania Ashraf, a research specialist who works on water, sanitation, hygiene and respiratory illness, at the Center for Social Norms and Behavioral Dynamics at the University of Pennsylvania, said the “Clean India Mission had increased private toilets as well as community or pay-per-use public toilet coverage — but during a pandemic, having access to a shared toilet means little if it is not clean.” Furthermore, poor ventilation can trap contaminated aerosols and “facilitate transmission of the virus,” Ashraf adds further. This is especially worrying in light of evidence that patients shed the virus through feces, raising the possibility of transmission in communal toilets and places where there is still open defecation.
Online Article / March 30, 2020
Behavioral Grooves Podcast
This podcast focuses on applying behavioral science insights to work and life where the hosts talk with interesting guests to explore “why we do what we do!”. In this podcast the hosts talk to businesses and nonprofit leaders about how they apply behavioral science to work to make their businesses more effective. The podcast also shares insights from behavioral science researchers from a wide variety of cross-disciplinary fields and in this episode the hosts mix both and are initiating their discussions with professors from the NoBeC Conference at the University of Pennsylvania that they recently attended. This podcast features Dr. Cristina Bicchieri, the faculty director of the Master of Behavioral and Decision Science Program at UPenn, who the hosts sat down with in the Kislak Center at UPenn in order to discuss this terrific master’s degree for practitioners.
Podcast / December 8, 2019
Knowledge @ Wharton Article
A team of researchers at Penn’s Center for Social Norms and Behavioral Dynamics, led by Cristina Bicchieri, investigated the role of trendsetters and change agents in the growth of Swachh Bharat Mission, the Indian government’s largest sanitation program to date. With the use of qualitative interviews, they point to several personal, social and organizational factors that have supported its growth in this Knowledge@Wharton article. The authors conclude, “as governments and other large organizations appreciate the role of behavioral forces in enacting social change, they may gain critical insights from the methods of the Swachh Bharat Mission, especially the tools that were adopted to achieve meaningful coordination and cooperation.”
Online Article / September 20, 2019
KickBack - The Global Anticorruption Podcast
The podcast this week features Cristina Bicchieri – the S. J. Patterson Harvie Professor of Social Thought and Comparative Ethics at University of Pennsylvania. This Kickback interview kicks off with Cristina’s early work on corruption and describes why corruption is often so “sticky”. Cristina outlines the importance of measurement to provide empirical support for her theoretical concepts, especially the distinction between unconditional versus conditional behavior and empirical versus normative expectations (for more info on this we highly recommend her newest book: Norms in the Wild). She describes how cleverly designed vignette studies help researchers to understand why a certain behavior persists.
Podcast / September 02, 2019
Dope Magazine Article
“The internet gives you an enormous ability of getting information, even if it is completely crazy, that confirms what you’ve decided to believe,” Bicchieri says. “So, the reference network will become all people who hold those beliefs and will villainize the people with different opinions.” When enough trendsetters visibly abandon a social norm without suffering consequences, others in their reference network adjust their expectations of social stigma and gradually follow suit, leading to a tipping point of behavioral change throughout the community. The issue then, Bicchieri says, “is to create a culture of openness,” that encourages trendsetters and diminishes the backlash they receive.
Online Article / June 6, 2019
Paper in Public Choice (2019)
Recent years have seen the rise of `norm-nudges’ – nudges whose mechanism of action relies on social norms, providing or eliciting social expectations. Norm-nudges can be powerful interventions, but they can easily fail to be effective and can even backfire unless they are designed with care. Eugen Dimant and Cristina Bicchieri highlight important considerations when designing norm-nudges and discuss a general model of social behavior based on expectations and conditional preferences. They further present the results of several experiments where norm-nudging can backfire, and ways to avoid these negative outcomes.
Paper / January 20, 2019
Amid the recent widespread allegations of sexual harassment, an article in the Economist explores what it takes to create lasting social change. Cristina Bicchieri, a philosopher at the University of Pennsylvania and the author of “Norms in the Wild”, a book about social rules, has a warning: ‘Don’t expect the birth of a new norm to be easy.’
Magazine Interview / Dec 19, 2017
World Humanitarian Day: Interview with Coursera
“In recognition of World Humanitarian Day, we chatted with Dr. Cristina Bicchieri, the S. J. Patterson Harvie Professor of Social Thought and Comparative Ethics at the University of Pennsylvania. In partnership with UNICEF, she teaches Social Norms, Social Change I and II on Coursera. Professor Bicchieri’s two-part course contains theoretical and practical content alongside interviews with UNICEF aid workers and their firsthand experiences using her teachings in the field.”
Print Interview / Aug 19, 2017
Knowedge @ Wharton Podcast
“Problems that surface within an organization are rarely clear-cut, says Cristina Bicchieri, a philosophy professor at the University of Pennsylvania who also teaches in Wharton’s legal studies and business ethics department. “It’s very rare that you observe something that is really bad and somebody does it in front of you.” With limited information, people may question their own understanding of a problem. “You hesitate…. It’s normal,” she says. “You cannot ask people to be super-moral, superhuman. You have to work with what you have.”
Podcast / Dec 20, 2011